Pele Fails To See World Cup Match Due To Massive Gridlock In Sao Paulo

With another world cup looming on the horizon the debate as to who is the greatest soccer player of all time has heated up again.

Each generation has had its own “great”, so we had Puskas (Hungary) in the 1950’s, Pele (Brazil) in the 1960’s, Maradona (Argentina) in the 1980’s and now we have Messi (Argentina).

In my opinion, the debate so far has failed to focus on one important factor which is that in deciding who is the greatest it is not sufficient to look at who could play the game well but you also have to look at what they achieved. The measure of greatness is not only how you play but largely what you achieve. Lots of players were excellent but never achieved anything or set any records.

Comparing players with each other is largely a matter of opinion which is always open to argument and counter-argument. Also, opinions are always laced with speculation and value-judgments and each generation claims ownership of the greatest.

On the other hand, the question of achievements and records are a matter of fact and is not open to argument or contradiction. You are entitled to your opinion but not your own facts. It is from these facts that one can decide who is the greatest.

For the purpose of the ‘who is the greatest?’ debate it is necessary to look at players across generation lines and match up their achievements against each other and compare them.

When you look at the record of achievements of one player, he will never be equaled and all great soccer players are measured against the Brazilian who once made the world stop to watch his mesmerizing play.

His name is Edison Arantes do Nascimento (Pele). He was born in 1940 in Tres Coracoes, Minas Gerais, Brazil. He grew up in poverty and could not afford a soccer ball so he would use a sock stuffed with newspaper and tied with a string or grapefruit to practice his skills (Pele Biography -Soccer Maniak, by Armin Serdarevic).

A look at Pele’s remarkable record of achievements will not end the debate about the greatest but should leave no doubt that Pele’s status as the King of soccer is unchallenged.

In (Pele Biography etc.), his records are first highlighted and then his domestic and international achievements are listed as follows:-


1. Pele scored his first international goal in his first match against Argentina at the Maracana stadium on July 7, 1957 at the age of 16 to become the youngest player to score in international soccer.
2. In his first World Cup game against the USSR in 1958 he became the youngest player to play in the World Cup at 17 and with his goal against Wales the youngest player to score a goal during a World Cup.
3. In the semi-final against France in 1958 he became the youngest player to score a hat-trick (3 goals in one match) and the youngest player to play in the World Cup final match.
4. In the final he scored 2 goals, one of which was selected as one of the best goals in the history of the World Cup. He lobbed the ball over the defender and then followed up with a volley shot and the ball ended up in the back of the net.
5. He finished the tournament tied for second place in most goals scored (6) in 4 matches and was named young player of the tournament. He won the Silver Ball as the second best player behind Didi (another Brazilian).
6. In the 1970 World Cup he was named Player of the tournament.
7. Pele is considered by FIFA as the most prolific scorer in history with 1281 goals in 1363 matches in all competitions.
8. He scored in two different World Cup finals.
9. After the 1958 World Cup he was declared by the Brazilian government an “official national treasure” to ward off offers from European clubs and prevent him from being transferred out of the country.
10. Which other player could cause the Nigerian Civil War in 1967 to be put on a 48 hour ceasefire so that they could watch him play an exhibition game in Lagos?


1) Achievements with Santos- Copa Libertadores (twice), Campeonato Paulista (10 times), Taça Brazil (5 times), Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa (once), Torneio Rio-São Paulo ( 4 times), Intercontinental Cup (twice) and Recopa Intercontinental: (once).
2) Achievements with New York Cosmos- North American Soccer League, Soccer Bowl (once).


• Roca Cup- (twice) and FIFA World Cup (three times).


1) Santos – Copa Libertadores top scorer: (once) and Campeonato Paulista top scorer: (11 times).

2) Brazil National Team:-

• Copa América top scorer: 1959;
• BBC Sports Personality of the Year Overseas Personality Winner: 1970;
• FIFA World Cup (Best Young Player) Winner: 1958-;
• FIFA World Cup Silver Boot: 1958;
• FIFA World Cup Silver Ball: 1958;
• FIFA World Cup Golden Ball (Best Player) Winner: 1970;
• Athlete of the Century, elected by world wide journalists, poll by French daily L’Equipe: 1981;
• South American Footballer of the Year: 1973;
• Inducted into the American National Soccer Hall of Fame in 1993;
• Knight Commander of the British Empire: 1997;
• In 1989 DPR Korea issued a postage stamp depicting Pelé;
• Athlete of the Century, by Reuters News Agency: 1999;
• Athlete of the Century, elected by International Olympic Committee: 1999;
• UNICEF Football Player of the Century: 1999;
• TIME One of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century: 1999;
• FIFA Player of the Century: 2000 (shared with Maradona);
• Football Player of the Century, elected by France Football’s Golden Ball Winners: 1999;
• Football Player of the Century, by IFFHS International Federation of Football History and Statistics: 1999;
• South America Football Player of the Century, by IFFHS International Federation of Football History and Statistics: 1999;
• Laureus World Sports Awards Lifetime Achievement Award from South African President Nelson Mandela: 2000.

It was not always plain sailing for Pele. He missed most of the 1962 World Cup through injury. And being the best player in the world was not without its risks.

In the1966 World Cup in England, with Brazil poised to win their third consecutive World Cup including their second on European soil, Pele’s pre-eminence in world soccer did not go unnoticed. To his opponents he had to be stopped even by foul means and so he was at the end of some of the most brutal tackles ever seen in the World Cup by Bulgaria and Portugal. He got no protection from the referees and no one was red-carded for hacking him down.

But the objective was achieved as Pele missed most of Brazil’s matches and Brazil got eliminated early. After the tournament Pele said that he would never play in the World Cup again.

He did play again and eventually retired in 1977 and since then he has been a worldwide ambassador for soccer and a leading contributor to charity all over the world.

In order to put Pele’s playing career (1956-1977) in its proper perspective it is useful to match it against the achievements of his two main rivals for greatest player, Maradona (1976-1997) and Messi (2004-present) and compare the results.

Sportsmail gathered the facts and put them together a 3 way comparison (see Mail Online- Magic Messi stakes his claim to be the greatest ever but is he better than Pele and Maradona? by Gerard Brand, March 13, 2013).


The results were:-
1. Pele romps both in average goals per game (0.94) to Messi (0.69) and Maradona (0.52).
2. As regards international caps (goals), Pele 92 (77) has more than twice Maradona’s goals in almost the same amount of games 91 (34) while Messi 77 (31) fares better than his compatriot but is a long way behind Pele.
3. Pele has 12 World Cup goals in 14 games while Maradona only has 8 goals in much more games (21) with Messi is far behind with only 1 goal in 8 games.
4. Messi has the same amount of major honors (10) as Pele but Pele has three World Cups and Messi has none. Maradona has the least amount of major honors (6) but has one World Cup.

Messi is only twenty five and still playing and the question is whether he will ever be able to beat Pele’s records. The answer seems to be no. Even if he catches Pele’s international goals it will take him much more games and his chances of winning three World Cups trophies are nil since they are only played every four years.

Like every other sport, the circumstances and conditions of soccer have improved from generation to generation. For example, today’s players wear lighter boots, are better trained and have better diets. But despite these improvements, no one has been able to match let alone surpass Pele’s record of achievements which testifies to the enormity of his success.

It is for this reason that I think Pele is the greatest of all time.

Football Shirts Designs For 2012 – the Year of Euro Cup

Nowadays Football shirts are very synonymous with the sport and are worn by fans all over the world when their team plays. They give fans a sense of attachment to their favorite club or national teams and gives them pride and honor to wear especially if theirs is a top ranked team. With football being the most popular sport on the planet, there are a lot of retail sales of football shirts yearly. This is made even greater if there is a big football event happening that year like the world cup. In 2012, there will be the Euro cup hosted by Poland and Ukraine and football shirts designs for 2012 will be centered on this major competition that takes place every four years in between word cups. It pits Europe’s best teams amongst each other and the competition is widely followed. The football shirt designs for 2012 will basically be centered on this event especially for the participating national teams whose fans will be dressing up in their team’s kit jerseys. For other countries whose teams will not be participating, their spectators will be in custom made football shirt designs for 2012 with the Euro 2012 logo or mascot on them. The Euro 2012 business will provide big business for football shirt manufacturers and retailers and stores in the host countries will have booming business selling football shirts designs for 2012. The participating national teams are already known and their jerseys are in mass production as the preparations for the competition get underway. The competitions for the best football shirt by manufactures will be intense as huge sales are expected for the new football jerseys. Some of the top brands that will be in the race to clinch the best football shirts designs for 2012 are the likes of Nike, Adidas, Puma and Umbro. Each company has its fair share of national teams to design shirts for and it will be stiff competition for them to come up with a design that will upstage the other competitors in the football shirt market. Since the teams in the Euro cup are fewer than the world cup, sales will not hit similar volumes but are expected to be quite high. There are also many teams which are expected to dominate shirt sales due to their popularity and ranking in the competition. These are like 2008 champions Spain, France, Italy, Holland, England and Germany. The team that unexpectedly performs well in the competition will also see an increase in the sale of its jersey as it wins over more fans. Apart from designs of football shirts for the Euro 2012 competition, there will also be designs of the training kit accessories that have gained popularity over the years. The football shirts designs for 2012 however remain the main source of revenue with fans itching to buy the home and away jerseys for their favorite team. It will be a great competition full of colorful and lively fans adorning their national team’s shirts.

Football Legend in Trouble Just Before Euro 2012

Just before Euro 2012 the European football Championships Liverpool FC got into the trouble. Even big, rich and famous football clubs with its fantastic atmosphere and brilliant training staff sometimes get troubles. Stock markets are much more important than sport spirit nowadays. Football clubs like Barcelona, Juventus and Chelsea are significant examples. Recently, another legendary English football club has unlucky joined this group. It’s Liverpool FC. Moreover, they were dethroned by Manchester City from English gold 4. Last season, former member of greatest English football clubs couldn’t even find place in Premier League’s top 4. Today Manchester City and Tottenham Hot Spurs are even better than Liverpool. Many football fans have doubts about selling club to the new owners Tom Hicks and George Gillet from United States few years ago. And unfortunately, they were right. Today, it is clear that the club falls into the crisis. In this football season 2011 / 2012 everybody was aware that the Reds will have a lot of determination to secure a place in the European Cup known as Champions League. To achieve this goal Liverpool have to find at least in the top 4 in English Football Premier League. In the previous season Liverpool was 5th and it was very lucky. They’ve qualified to Europa League second after Champions League European football competition. Two season ago, it seemed that Liverpool FC will fight only for major trophies, because they made the most expensive transfers in their football club history. They’ve hired Rafael Benitez as a coach and bought Fernando Torres and Ryan Babel. Even with them Liverpool still have problems. The Spanish coach couldn’t help team. After they prestigious winning against AC Milan in Uefa Cup few years ago they have nothing achieved. Moreover there were speculations that they win that final with a little of help and mafia was involved in this game. You probably remember this football match. Liverpool was loosing 1:4 up to the first half. After the break the situation suddenly changed and there were 4:4 at the final wistle. At the end they have won in the penalties due to brilliant defends of Liverpool goalkeeper Jerzy Dudek and his “Dudek dance”. But as I write earlier. It was the end of trophies. After two years Liverpool fans and supporters demanded Spanish coach resignation. And perhaps there would be nothing extraordinary in this, because always in moments of crisis responsibility falls on the coach but Benitez have great trust of the American club owners who extended the contract for a further two years. In the official statement there were written : “Rafa is under contract for a further two years, we support him and we have full confidence in the team under his leadership.” However it was happened after a fruitful season, capped by promotion of the club to Champions League. But after failure in the Premier League relations between the coach and American owners of the club radically changed. Buying of expensive players haven’t brought any results. Atmosphere between football fans, coach and owners were awful. Fans started to boycott games at Anfield Road. There were many critical voices about American businessmen. Finally club hired new manager Kenny Daglish former Liverpool football legend. In this season 2011 / 2012 Liverpool play the same. Looking at the Premier League table changes didn’t brought anything. But wait a minute. There is light in the tunnel. Liverpool advance to the final of English Carling League Cup.

Euro Football Betting – Become A Winner Today!

The euro football betting scheme is a very good means for people to earn while putting their money on their winning teams. This is made possible through the use of a calculating method that would integrate every information and data regarding the game including the player’s statistics, team record and other statistics involved in the game. This process has changed the way people predict games since the use of the mathematical processes has accurately depicted the results of the simulations. Basically, the team that would win can be predicted depending on its past performances. The result is acceptable considering the fact that many of the customers and clients who have used the simulation were able to garner a high percentage of wins with their bets. Many of the customers have a high win ratio posted in the site database and is even authenticated to show the effectiveness of the system. The football betting scheme in euro is also modified to cater to the needs of other customers in the international scene including South America, North America, Australia and Asia. This is because the simulation method done to project the team that would win can be applied on any match up. That is why the football betting site has been legitimized to be used in every major country. The rates of customer winnings are also high. The euro football simulation can be accessed anywhere in the internet at a very affordable price. Aside from this feature, team stats and information can be found. The following data is very useful not only in betting but also in the analysis of the team performance. The euro football betting is very easy and manageable to use. Basically, the picks are posted in the site and can be viewed easily. In cases where in special bets are required, the clients and customers can request their own picks which is created by the staff and team of experts who are very knowledgeable in the sport selected. The feature also includes a live chat which allows customers to directly ask question regarding technical and practical information on the teams they are betting on. This would easily give them the upper hand in putting their money on the winning side. This is why many betting and sports prediction companies have employed the services of euro football since they are very knowledgeable in the different aspects of the sport. The euro football betting is a very good option for players and sports enthusiast who are looking to earn money by betting on their favorite teams. It has all the complete tools to guide everyone on picking the good teams that would have favorable chances of winning. Every customer should know that betting is a very risky business but the chances of winning can be drastically improved by using the situation to one’s advantage. The probability of a team winning is dependent on hundreds of factors and variables. In order to see if your team would win, the euro football picks is a good tool of comparison and research.

Euro 2008 Football Tournament Review

This summer’s European Football Championships held in Switzerland and Austria has been hailed as a massive success. The vast majority of games were full of excitement and goals and there were very few unsavory incidents. Many supporters and experts have expressed their belief that the tournament was one of the best ever. The eventual winners were Spain who were regarded as the best team not only by virtue of the winning score line but also they were the team that played the best football, scored the most goals and conceded the least. This year’s European Championships was the thirteenth time it has been held since its inauguration in 1960. The tournament format was based on four groups with four teams in each. They played off against each other once and the top two teams qualified for the quarter finals. The group stage of Euro 2008 provided a fantastic display of open attacking football. The opening game of the 2008 tournament was played out between co-hosts Switzerland and the Czech Republic. The Swiss had high hopes that they could impress but it looked like the pressure of expectation lay heavy as they struggled. They suffered a huge blow by losing star striker Alexander Frei during the game before losing 1-0. In Group A, Portugal eased to victories over the Czech Republic and Switzerland to become the first team to qualify. In a dramatic final game between Turkey and the Czech Republic, the former emerged victorious after coming back from two goals down to score three in the last 15 minutes of the game. In Group B, pre-tournament favorites Germany beat Poland before surprisingly losing to Croatia in the second game. They eventually qualified in the last game but failed to impress in a narrow win over co-hosts Austria, who were also eliminated in the same game. Group C was seen as the tightest group with Holland, France and the World Cup winners Italy battling with Romania. However the Dutch seemed to be one of the most impressive teams in the tournament after comfortably beating Italy 3-0 and France 4-1. With Holland comfortably through, Italy and France met each other to decide the final qualification. In a tense game the Italians proved to be more resilient as they won 2-0. In Group D Spain and Russia demonstrated some of the best attacking football in the whole tournament. The Spanish with their quick one touch football and the clinical shooting of Fernando Torres and David Villa easily qualified with victories over Russia, Greece and Sweden. The Russians followed with an impressive victory in the last game against the Swedes. The quarter finals are typically the point when the best raise their game. This is often the case with Germany. Having struggled to qualify from the group stage, they impressed by defeat a good Portuguese team and became the first team to qualify for the semi-finals. They were joined there by Turkey who in a dramatic finale managed to level the game against Croatia in the last minute before defeating them in a penalty shoot-out. Holland failed to continue their earlier impressive performances by losing to Russia and Spain managed to defeat Italy on penalties after a tense game. The semi-finals provided fantastic entertainment. Turkey once more demonstrated their tenacity, but ultimately were unable to restrain Germany who progressed to the Final 3-2. Spain eased through after defeating Russia for the second time in tournament. The Euro 2008 Final was played on 30 June. Spain won 1-0 with a goal from Fernando Torres and subsequently won the tournament for the first time since 1964.

Euro Cup 2008 – A Display of the World’s Best Football

The Euro Cup 2008 has begun and the eyes of every football fan around the world are fixed between Austria and Switzerland this June to watch the display of top quality football that the European teams have to offer and that’s precisely the reason why this event that takes place every four years is considered the second most important football competition in the world, just after the World Cup. Currently the supremacy of the UEFA football teams is an undeniable fact; statistically the European teams lead the world rankings with 24 of the Top 40 teams on both FIFA World Rankings and World Football Elo Ratings, and all the teams qualified to the Euro 2008 are part of those Top 40 teams except for Austria and Switzerland that were automatically qualified as hosts. The European Championship started on Saturday June 7 at the co-host Switzerland, with a short opening ceremony followed by the first match of the Group A between Switzerland and Czech Republic where the co-host team was defeated 0-1. The Swiss team also lost one of its best players, the striker and Switzerland’s all-time leading scorer Alexander Frei who suffered a knee injury at the end of the first half of the game that will have him out of the rest of the competition. The second match of the opening day was between the other two teams of the Group A, Portugal and Turkey, and it was a game clearly dominated by Portugal that ended with a score of 2-0 and may have won with a bigger margin as three of their shots were stopped by the crossbar. Portugal is currently leading the Group A and is one of the favorite teams to win the championship; they hosted the Euro 2004 and finished as runner-ups that year against Greece. The first matches of Group B took place on Sunday; Germany defeated Poland 2-0 and Croatia defeated the other championship co-host Austria 1-0. Monday was the day for the Group C, formed by four Top Ten teams in the World Football Elo Ratings: Netherlands, France, Italy and Romania. This group is considered the “Group of death” of the Euro 2008. France faced Romania in the first game that finished with a 0-0 draw while Netherlands managed to overcome the present World Cup Champion Italy 3-0 in a catastrophic start for the Azurri team that placed it in the last position of the group, situation that the champions will need to eradicate in the remaining two games of the group stage to be able to continue in the competition. The Group D teams played their first games on Tuesday beginning with a great start for the Spaniard team leaded by the striker David Villa, the man of the match that scored three goals for his team in the first 75 minutes of the game. Roman Pavluchenko scored a late goal back for Russia in the 86 minute but four minutes later Cesc Fabregas scored the fourth shot that closed the game with a deserved victory for Spain. Finally, Greece stumbled in the first step to defend its championship title when it was defeated 2-0 by Sweden. Group stage continue this Wednesday with the second round of matches of the Group A and will finish until June 18th, after this the top two teams of each team will pass to the Quarter-finals of the Knockout stage. The Championship is just in its first week and though there are some favorite teams already, we’ll have to keep watching closely to see who’s going to take the Euro Cup Trophy home this time.

What Is Your Fashion Statement For This Season?

Nowadays, it is quite hard to keep up with the latest in fashion. Almost every week, new trends are coming up. In Hollywood, celebrities caught everyone’s attention with their styles. Most of the glamorous movie stars compete not only with their acting prowess but with their choice of fashion styles as well. Women’s fashion constantly changes. Those who are particular in how they look will absolutely invest much just to keep themselves abreast with what’s in and what’s hot. Well, this is really not bad at all if you have all the resources you need to avail the latest items in fashion.

However, women can still make her own fashion statement for a little amount of effort and resources. In making fashion a little bit more practical but updated, women’s accessories are a good option to make. There are many available women accessories that will complement your fashion styles. Take for example the Cashmere pashmina which is very much ideal especially now that it is winter time. As early as November, we can already feel the cool breeze of December. For me, cashmere pashmina is the right choice. There are lots of colors and designs to choose from for cashmere pashmina. If you just know how to use it properly, it is already a very good accessory that is very much useful for all occasions. Cashmere pashmina is a versatile accessory that allows you to create your own style with it.

Women don’t really have to be so vain when it comes to fashion. No matters how expensive your clothes and accessories might be but you look terribly awful upon wearing it, you better not wear it at all. Women can actually create her own signature style, something that would define her fashion statement. Self-confidence is one factor that will not caused her to look good of the fashion of her choice. You don’t have to be as glamorous as Paris Hilton or as trendy as any teenage sensation. Real fashion for me is not all about the style; it is all about the attitude. If you can carry it, then you are definitely in!

How To Find Your Own Style

Each of us have our own unique  sense of style. Our clothes can sometimes reflect our personality. This is the reason why most of us love to play around with different pieces. Some fashion styles are categorized in different types. It may be a mix of one or more styles but what makes it special is because these styles are worn uniquely by you.


1. Bohemian Goddess 

If you are more of a laid-back kind of girl, and has a knack for putting together unique pieces in a flash, then you may be a bohemian goddess.

Key pieces: tie-dye shirts, floppy hats, batik prints, unique accessories

Put it Together: You can mix and match boho-inspired items with classic garments such as jeans, vests, and cotton tees. You can even add a unique flavor to a neutral outfit with some funky, vintage looking accessories and other beaded details.

2. The Classic Chic

Your love for classic cuts, clean lines and elaborate detailing determines your affinity for elegant and chic styles.

Key Pieces: Classic pieces that never go out of style, statement jewelry, sophisticated bags

Put it Together: Give some glam to your outfits by mixing floral or animal print patterns. If you love wearing subtle prints, pair them with crisp neutral pieces such as a peach top and a white blazer. Finish the look with gold accessories and a big pair of sunglasses.

3. The Head Turning Avant Garde

If you have a fearless approach to fashion, you may have an avante garde kind of style. You are more inclined on fashionable, up and coming pieces and you are never scared to take risks.

Key Pieces: Black pieces layered with eye catching materials

Put It Together: Try to choose conversation-starter pieces and combine them with your classic black garments. Who says that you can’t be as avante-garde as Lady Gaga?

4. The Whimsical Fairy

Fun, creative and flirty are the three words to describe the whimsical style. Retro pieces are given a fashionable revival thanks to your confident, and effortless stride.

Key pieces: Vintage accessories, quirky prints, playful, girly pieces

Put it Together: Give a retro-ish dress a modern twist by pairing it with classic accessories and a trendy bag.

Fashion isn’t all about following the rules by the book. It’s all about letting yourself loose and express your own style. Remember that there is a fine line between tacky and tasteful. Try to experiment with different styles and you will eventually discover one that is uniquely yours.

Natural Beauty Cosmetics – Enhance Your Natural Beauty

Nothing can enhance a woman’s face, beautiful or otherwise, better than the right make-up. Today, the beauty industry is a billion dollar business and the choice of Beauty Cosmetics available, is mind-blogging to say the least. While buying them, one has to keep certain things in mind. Some of them are the skin type, allergic reaction to a certain product if any, night or day wear etc.

How to buy Beauty Cosmetics

Before buying beauty products one must keep in mind to buy not the right beauty product, but the one most ideal for them. Buying them is a very individualistic exercise, as what suits one may not suit another. Hence, one should do some basic ground work before venturing into the shopping exercise. Cosmetics include facial make-up, perfumes, Nail-polishes and so on. People prefer buying branded cosmetics as there is always the safety issue to be considered.

Preference for Natural beauty cosmetics

Today, women are better informed than their counterparts a few years ago. They know the harm some ingredients used in manufacturing cosmetics cause; for e.g. lead. Similarly, there is also a growing sentiment among them to go for products that have not been tested on animals. Herbal and Natural Beauty Cosmetics have become the order of the day for many women. Natural cosmetics are popular these days as their long term benefits are preferred over the short term benefits that could be potentially harmful in the future. Natural beauty products use a lot of natural ingredients as opposed to synthetic ones.

Buying Beauty Cosmetics Online

Nothing can beat buying branded cosmetics from the comfort of one’s home. And if they are available at better or discounted rates, there is nothing quite like it. Nowadays, online beauty products sites offer a variety of cosmetics at the click of a mouse. One can chose the ones they like and need and order the same. The payment is made securely and the package is delivered to the door-step in a matter of just a few days. Nothing can beat that surely.

Urban women have gained financial independence in ways, not even thought of earlier. They like to be groomed and look their absolute best at all times. They have changed the way they shop for their cosmetics. These days it is just a matter of using a mouse and a keyboard and a credit card. The rest as they say is her story.

Jewelry In Ancient Rome

Jewelry is a fascinating fashion accessory that has been popular from ancient times. It has played a variety of roles including political, religious and ornamental, and jewelry artifacts have helped modern historians shape pictures of the daily lives of ancient civilizations.

Jewelry in ancient Rome is no exception. There are literary accounts and pictorial depiction such as in the Regina tombstone, plus an abundance of other artifacts available that help us to understand the role jewelry played during this fascinating time.

Jewelry was worn by men and women though it was subject to conventions of the time; particularly with regards to the appearance of men. Male jewelry was typically practical in nature. Men usually wore a single ring. The ring would serve a functional purpose. Typically a signet ring, the male jewelry item was used to seal official documentation. The male signet ring was initially iron but was later produced in gold as it displayed status and wealth more clearly.

Other practical uses of the signet ring included the inlay being a type of key for a strong box. Literary evidence suggests that propriety regarding male jewelry was ignored by a minority of fashion fanatics, as with any other social group. Trends and attitudes also changed from the time of Emperor Augustus. The emperors were established with official state clothing during his reign which included jewelry as a display of status and power.

Jewelry also had a protective function in ancient Rome. Boys wore an item of jewelry known as a bullah. This was worn from being a baby. It was worn around the neck and was a form of chain with a pouch which contained an amulet. This was a jewelry item worn by most classes, but the rich upper class had bullahs made of gold. The amulet was often phallic in design, as boys were considered to be the stronger species and so needed protection. Another jewelry item worn by boys was a small gold ring which was again carved with a phallus for good luck

With regards to women, jewelry was first and foremost a display of wealth and status. Women had no obvious status distinction through their dress like Roman men. Therefore, hairstyles and jewelry were the only distinction possible. The importance of jewelry to the status of women is apparent through certain historical events. When the Oppian law was passed in 195BC curbing the use of jewelry and suggesting it be handed over for war materials, women demonstrated against this in the streets. During the campaigns of Marcus Curellius, women chose to donate their jewelry to get enough gold to send a huge gold vase as an offering to Delphi. Their behavior was rewarded with speeches at funerals which had previously been only for men.

The type and amount of jewelry worn by women varied, but the richest women were the most flamboyant in terms of amount and style. Amber jewelry was only worn by lower class women and was thought vulgar by the wealthy who favored gold jewelry. Other items used to make jewelry include pearls, colored glass beads and polished stones. These would be inset in gold and would vary in size and style, depending upon status. It was possible to tell a lot about a woman in ancient Rome by the jewelry she wore.

The types of jewelry worn include necklaces with adornments such as pendants, amulets. Fibula which are similar to safety pins were used as fasteners and so were often adorned to make them a piece of jewelry that was both function and beautiful. Earrings were popular and came in both hoop and drop styles. Rings were usually inset with stones or carvings.

Particularly popular jewelry items were engraved gems which were referred to as intaglio. These were gems such as carnelian, jasper and chalcedony that had a sunken or engraved image, created with the use of wheels and drills.

Tomb jewelry findings suggest that bracelets were usually worn in pairs with one on each arm. Some tombs have revealed up to 7 items of jewelry on each arm which shows how the conventions for men and women differed. Even gold thread hairnets have been discovered.

This article is under GNU FDL license and can be distributed without any previous authorization from the author. However the author’s name and all the URLs (links) mentioned in the article and biography must be kept.